Age and Gender Differences in the Association between Serious Psychological Distress and Cancer: Findings from the 2003, 2005, and 2007 Health Information National Trends Surveys (HINTS)
Background: Little is known about the association of serious psychological distress (SPD) with cancer.
Aims: This study examined the association between SPD and cancer, and tested whether such association differed by age and gender.
Methods: Data came from the 2003, 2005, and 2007 Health Information National Trends Surveys (HINTS) (2,637 cancer cases and 16,581 controls). Weighted univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Results: The overall prevalence of SPD was 6.7% (5.4% for males and 7.9 % for females; 7.1% for cancers and 6.4% for controls). The prevalence of SPD decreased with age (7.8%, 5.8% and 3.9% for age groups 18-49, 50-64 and 65+ years, respectively). After adjusting for other factors, being female, elder (65+ years), SPD, and poor general health were positively associated with cancer (p<0.05). Gender-stratified analyses showed that SPD was associated with cancer only in women. Stratified by age groups, SPD and obesity were associated with cancer only in elderly.
Conclusions: Older age, being female, SPD and poor general health were associated with increased likelihood of cancer. Stratified by age groups and gender, SPD was significantly associated with cancer in women and elder group. It is important to develop effective strategies to manage SPD among patients with cancer, especially in women and elder adults.
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